Friday, June 19, 2009

Study of Muslim infiltration Into Rakhine State

By U Shwe Zan


1. The term “Rohingya” is unknown to the people of Rakhine in pre-war days. Because there is no such
indigenous race in Myanmar or particularly in Rakhine. So, the question does not arise to define the
meaning of “Rohingya” as a race.

2. So also, after the exodus of 1992, the minister of Foregin Affairs of state Law and order Restoration
Council Government issued the following statement in the conference of February 92: “Although there
are 135 national races living in Myanmar today, the so called the Rohingya people is not one of them.
Historically, there has never been a Rohinger race in Myanmar. People of Muslim faith from the adjacent
country illegally entered into Myanmar Naingan particular the Rakhine State.” Who ever they might be
the central authority the legal definition is that they are considered only as “alien” or “guest citizens”.

3. But Muslim writers like Ba Tha tried to publicize about Rohingya by writing some make shift stories of
the earlier settlement in Rakhine land as Arabs, Moors and Persians. Those shipwrecked people near
Ramree Island were supposed to be rescued and let them settled around Wethali area in round about AD
788, the founding date of Wethali. Those Muslim writers tried to refer the dating and writings of R.B
Smart, the author of British Gazetteer of Akyab District Gazetteer Vol. (A) 1921, as an authority.

4. We noticed that, AD 788 (8th century) was the date firstly recongnized by Lieutenant General Sir
Arthur P. Phayre, a well known Brain Child of the British administration who published a Historical
Book, entitled “History of Burma”, in which he mentioned and claimed the ascension date of king
Candathuria, founder of 3rd Dhanyawady as 146 AD and ending date of that period as 788 AD which was
also a starting date of Wethali.

5. Generally speaking, we have so far, noted two kinds of Dynastic records
in our Ancient History, especially from the later part of second Dhanyawady up to the end of Wethali.
The first one is the dynastic list mentioned in the Rakhine chronicles and the other is the records inscribed
in the western face of Shitethaung pillar or Ananda Candra Inscription pillar.

6. We have many sound proofs and concrete-supporting evidences about the existence of Wethali
Dynasty mentioned in the inscription pillar of Shitethaung which definitely disapproved the separate
existence of Wethali Dynasty mentioned in Chronicle side. Hence, it is sure and justified to claim that the
two lists of Wethali mentioned in two different sides are not separate ones, but one and the same single
Wethali with a few difference of names which was clearly supported by Theinkan main twon, an eighth
century verse composed by Saw Prai Nyo alias Thuwunna Devi, a poet Queen of Dhamma Candra (a)
Theinga Candra of Wethali.

7. According to Dr. Sircar’s tentative assignment, the starting date of wethali (Table II) is 370 AD which
is only difference of 6 years (starting from later part of 2nd Dhanyawady to our calculation using Vikram
Sambat calendar dates) i.e. Asokan base dating system as 364 AD in chronicle side which is a negligible
figures compared to thousand years of life span. Moreover it is not reasonable and proper to accept the
starting date of Wethali as AD 788 or 8th century and it is also not justifiable to accept two Wethali theory
which will only upset the actually existed Wethali but also spoiled the whole show of the successive
periods of Lemro dynasty.

8. In fact, beginning of Wethali as AD 788 or 8th century is happened because of wrong or miscalculation
of dating by Sir Arthur P. Phayer and other European scholars including R.B smart and Historians. The
comparative statement between Phayer and Rakhine scholars are attached here. Please see annexure (1).
The following is a good example of their mistakes. Dr. Forchhammer, a renowned German Archeaologist,
collected an unreliable kawza dates 150 as founding date of Wethali and he tried to convert this era into
Christian era by adding a conversion factor 638 untimely and creating the result 788 and AD 788 which
they also claimed as ending date of 3rd Dhanyawady and simultaneously became the starting or founding
date of Wethali which is entirely unacceptable and wrong doings of historical recording and dating.

9. Therefore, it is clear to say that the ending date of 3rd Dhanyawady and starting date of Wethali is
definitely in 4th century AD.

10. We understand from Myanmar Encyclopedia or (Swe Sone Kyan) vol. 9 that the date of birth of
Prophet Mohamed was AD 571 (6th century). According to Muslim writers. It seemed to say that Muslim
setters like shipwrecked survivors of Persians, Moors and Arabs arrived to Rakhine Wethali about 200
years ahead of the Mohamed’s birth which is entirely absurdity. It shows that Muslim writers were so
much preoccupied interest to be claimed the Buddhist Rakhine land as a Muslim state.

11. However. As we all know. Rakhine people professed Buddhist since the life time of Guatama Buddha.
Guatama Buddha visited Dhanyawady in 123 Mahar era or BC 517 (Vikram Sambat dating) or BC 544
(Kaliyug dating) i.e. 6th century BC and preached the King Candathuria. The founder of third
Dhanyawady. At the same time, with the consent of Lord Buddha. The King cast a Bronze Image of
Buddha’s exact likeness. Which was popularly known as Mahamuni. (Now rested in Mandalay). In other
sense Rakhine professed Buddhism about 14 centuries ahead of supposed to be Muslim early settlers like.
Professed Buddhism about 14 centuries ahead of supposed to be Muslim early settlers like Persians,
Moors and Arabs to the Rakhine land.

12. Again, A highly delegated Buddhist mission by Emperor Asoka arrived to Rakhine Dhanyawady
during the reign of Thuria Sekka, 6th in the line of Candathuria dynasty in the year between R.E 214-234.
From that time onwards Rakhine people became a strong believers of Htayrawada Buddhism up till now.
Rakhine people began to practice Buddhist civilization and culture by doing noviciating ceremony to
there son and also entering monk hood after attaining the age of maturity since then. By combined effort,
Asokas’s Buddhist mission and King Thuria Sekka built many stuppas, cetias and temples and ordination
halls enshrining with Buddha relics, which were brought by the same mission, throughout length and
breadth of Rakhine land. Kyauk Ro Daw ceti of Thelagiri Hill and U rite Taung ceti were some of the
good examples. Moreover, King Thuria Sekka cast Buddha images with the same stock of noble metals
used by his forefather’s king Candathuria during the casting of Mahamuni. We can worship Sandamuni
Image, cast by Thuria sekka, which is now rested on the precinct of Bandoola Monastery in Mrauk-U.

Migration of Mohammedans before and during Mrauk-U periods.

13. Unlike in India, there were no Mohammedan conquest to Rakhine up to date. But there were some
settlement of Mohammedan we noticed in Rakhine land before and during Mrauk-U periods. Firstly a few
shipwrecked people of Arabs, Moors and Persians were supposed to be settled around Wethali in 8th
century AD.

14. Secondly, during the end of Laungret period, some followers of Jelludin Muhammed Shah (Sultan of
Gaur) who helped king Mon to regain the Rakhine throne (Laungret) in AD 1428. They were in return
allowed to settle around Laungret area.

15. Third occasion we noticed was, after the expedition of Min Ba Gri (AD 1531- 1556) to 12 Bengal
provinces, the king brought back some Muslim prisoners and they were allowed to settle in Mrauk-U

16. Fourth occasion we noticed was. During the reign of Sandathudamma Raza. Shah Shuja, the Governor
of Mogul Bengal, after defeat in the battle between two heirs of Mogul Emperor Aurunzab took refuge in
Mrauk-U, together with his family and folowers in AD 1661. After sometimes in Mrauk-U, Shah Shuja
and followers planned to wage a revolt against Sandathudamma Raza and attempted to capture the
Mrauk-U Palace. In no time the revolt was crushed by Sandathudamma Raza and all the family of the
Shah Shuja were executed. However some of the archers of Shah Shuja were asorbed into the
Sandathudama’s army and allowed them to serve as archers. Most of the followers of Shah Shuja were
dispersed and allowed them to settle in Ramree. Kyauk Ni Maw. Thandwe (Shwe Kyaung byin) and
Thinganet village in present Sittwe Township. Since they belonged to the former Archer groups of Shah
Shuja army they were called Kaman in the Arab language. When time advanced they were later called as

So much Muslim influence as alleged by Muslim writers and
European and Foreign scholars.

17. Some Muslim writers alleged that since most of the Rakhine Kings were the possessors of Muslim
titles, they were definitely the Muslim rulers and they also issued coins bearing with Persian and Arabic
inscription endorsed with Muslim titles which were supposed to be the evidences of the Muslim influence
in Rakine.

18. It is entirely wrong and false statements made by Muslim writers and Europeans.

19. Mrauk-U which remained the capital of Rakhine for 355 years was founded by King Mong Saw Mon
alias Narameithla in 1430 AD (RE 792).This capital city was housed by 48 kinds during nearly three and
half centuries of glory and power. Kings Thamada (1780-1785) of Mrauk-U dynasty was the last ruler.

20. Among the 10 out of 12 kings of Mrauk-U first period built pagodas. Two kings who did not built
pagodas were king Ba Saw Nyo, son of Mong Khari and king Gazapati, son of Mong Raza 5th and 9th king
of that period who reigned Mrauk-U 2 years each. Again out of nine kings who ruled the 2nd period of
Mrauk-U, except Mong Sanai who ruled only for 20 days, built pagodas. During that 2nd period of Mrauk-
U. 12 Bengal provinces were under the control of Rakhine kings and relation between Rakhine kings and
Mogul kings were friendly in those days.

21. Historically speaking 16th and 17th centuries were the most prosperous tmes of Mrauk-U dynasty.

22. In early days of 16th century, Mong Ba Gri was compelled to 12 Bengal Provinces because there need
to suppress the revolt against Rakhine king by some Muslim elements. However, Humayun the 2nd Mogul
king, son of the 1st Mogul ruler Babur cordially welcome Mong Ba Gri and he offered his daughter
Pensital and honored the Rakhine King Mong Ba Gri with Muslim title Zapun Shah (Some said Zaw
Bauk Shah). Moreover they made a border agreement between Rakhine and Mogul. In this way Mong Ba
Gri’s Successors Mong Phaloung, Mong Raza Gri and Mong Kha Mong were also similarly honored by
successive Mogul kings with respective Muslim titles as Sicanda Shah, Selimn Shah and Hussein Shah.

23. Mogul kings honored those titles to the Buddhist Rakhine king as a token of friendship but not as a
religious influences as wrought by the said Muslim writers and European Scholars.

24. All the rest of the kings belonging to Mrauk-U. Third Period were Buddhist kings, but only 22nd king
Narapadigri, 24th king Sanda Thudamma Raza, Ogabala, 25th king and 41st king Nara Abbaya Raza built
Pagodas. The rest of the kings belonging to third periods were weaker kings and moreover it was a
declining days of Rakhine.

Rakhine under Burmese rule

25.Rakhine lost her sovereignty in the year AD 1785. During the Burmese rule Rakhine State was divided
into to parts and each part was ruled by an each Burmese Governor. During the 4 Governors rule, people
hesitate to pay high taxes and some dissatisfied people tried to revolt against the rulers. About 9 times of
revolts were noticed and in that such unsettled period, many people of Rakhine managed to escape from
their native land and most of the people intended to settle in British India especially in East Bengal and
Cittagong Hill tracts, In this circumstances British authority constructed some new towns namely
Awagyun and Cox’s Bazaar and let the Rakhine evacuees to settle in this new places. After 40 years of
Burmese Rule., First Anglo Burmese war broke out. Burmese lost the war after two years of battle. In
accordance with the Rantapo treaty, Rakhine and Tanin Thayi were annexed by British in 1826 AD. A
new town of Sittwe was constructed in 1827 AD and became a new Head Quarter of Rakhine Division.

26. Many Rakhine, who took refuge in India, began to return to their homeland immediately after the
annexation. Most of them began to settle in Sttwe, Kyaukpyu and Thandwe and some people managed to
settle in their original native places. The population of Rakhine state by that time was only hundred

Rakhine under British rule
Infiltration of Bengali Muslims

27. The main objective of the British Capitalists were to exploit their utmost the resources of Rakhine
land. Commercial trading of agricultural products were also their aim. Due to the scarcity of agricultural
labourers, British trading companies tried to recruit the general labourers from Chitagong during the
ploughing and harvesting seasons.

28. After the opening of Suez Canal in 1869 AD, rice trading was very much popular because of attractive
prices. In these circumstances, British companies tried to expand the paddy growing agriculture as much
as possible, they recruited more seasonal laborers from Chittagong and an open door policy was existed.
At first, most of the seasonal laborers returned to their country, after the closing seasons. But later on
many of the seasonal laborers failed to return to Chittagong and they started settlement in Rakhine
especially in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung and Sittwe Townships.

29. In the later part of 19th century (1874 AD), British Rulers chartered about 42 land grants to the virgin
lands of Rakhine, out of which 15 were granted in Maungdaw Township and 9 in Buthidaung Township.
One of the condition out lined in the charter was, the holders of these land grants should be persons who
lived outside the chartered area. That was also one of the reasons why Bengali Muslim population became
stronger in these areas.

30. British authority tried to enact new labor laws but it effected not much because British companies
began to use the tender system in recruiting seasonal laborers indirectly thought the brokers. By that way
the infiltration of Bengali Muslimnever stooped. About 15000 of Bengali Muslim migrated yearly in to
Rakhine land were observed. For easy transportation of those Bengali laborers British Authority allowed t
open some British Navigation emptiness companies in 1880. The two famous Navigation companies were
British India stem Navigation Company and Asiatic Steam Navigation Company. In order to expedite the
carrying of the Chittaonian laborers, those navigation companies were subsidized by the British
authorities so as to carry with cheap rate to the said laborers. British Authorities also opened a railroad
between Buthidaung and Maungdaw that means in order to get easy communication between Naaf and
Mayu rivers.

31. If we analyze the incoming and returning of the Bengali population during 1980 and 1984. We can
observe the following dates—

syear(a)-------No. of Bengali in coming to Rakhine (b)----------No. of Settlers (c)

1. 1880-81---------40000--------------------------------------------18000
2. 1883-84---------83000 -------------------------------------------43000
3. 1927 ------------40000-------------------------------------------35000

32. The Bengali Muslim settlers started their livelihood in Rakhine as petty brokers. Crew members of
small launchers, canoe peddlers, and agriculture laborers. Small agriculturist etc.

33. Due to the ‘open door’ policy of British Colonialists, the population of Sittwe District increasing
rapidly year by in between 1832 to 1911. The following are the statistics of Sittwe District population: -

Year (a)



34. Among the population of Sittwe District, the population density of Maungdaw townships was the
highest. Average increasing rate of township werew 21% and density of Maungdaw was 130 per square
mile. It was so happened because Maugdaw Township was lying quite close to the Chittagong District
where majority people living their Mohammedam population.

35. The following are the statistics shown by religion in the years of 1872, 1901 and 1911.

Religion-----------------1872 ----------1901 ----------------1911
Hindu-------------------2655 ----------14455 ---------------14454
Mohammedan-----------28255 ---------154837 --------------178647
Rakhine Buddhist--------171612 --------239649 --------------209432
Hill dwellers-------------38577 ---------35482----------------34020

36. The rapid increasing of Mohammedan population was happened because of the open door policy of
British India, where Rakhine was included under their rule.

37. In 1935, although Burma was separated from India, she still remained in the British Empire and
infiltration of Bengali Muslims were still going strong. Many Bengali Muslim were absorbed in the
Government services from peon to the Head of office. We could find many Bengali Muslims in nongovernment
jobs and also found in many other well income trading and industrials organization too.

38. When Japanese advanced to Myanmar in 1942, most of the Indians, who settled in our country, started
to evacuate to their country of origin India by two routes. One was Pyay-Taungoke route and the other
was via Mon Ywa-Kalewa route. The estimated amount of evacuees were about 4 hundred thousands.

39. According to 1942 census, the populations of Bengali Muslims were 124452. When we add the
Muslims evacuees from Burma proper, it accumulated to a considerable amount of the original Muslim
population in that area. As a result, Muslim Population became strong hold in Buthidaung and Maungdow

40. In this tense situation, British administrations were deteriorated day by day. In such condition, the
communal riots broke out between unsatisfied Rakhine and Kala (Bengali Muslims). Aggressive Muslims
started to flame and distracted the many villages belonging to Rakhine in Buthidaung and Maungdaw
Township. Many Rakhine villages were taken over by Muslim populations and they settled there during
the 2nd world war. In 1941 there were left the 2nd world war.

41. After all, Muslim population became majority in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Township after the 2nd
World war. In this circumstances Muslims started to demand separate Muslim State and simultaneously,
underground movements of “Mujahids”began in 1947.

42. At the same time, armed Mujahid insurgents started to flame and destroyed rest of the Rakhine
villages. The Rakhines were drove out from their native villages and they took over those villages where
they tried to substitute with Bengali Muslims in place of Rakhines. That was the unlawful way of action
done by Mujahid insurgents in those areas.

43. As a result Rakhine population became minority and only a handful of Rakhine villages can be see in
Buthidaung and Maungdaw area.

44. During the 120years of British rule (i.e. between 1827 and 1947) British adopted the divide and rule
policy as well as open door policy and also encouraged the Chittagongnians to enter freely into the
Rakhine land especially in Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships. As a result the population increased to
100% in 20 years. That means the population recorded on 1921 census was 60480 where as in 1941
census, the population came up to 124452.
{Of course, these are the bad legacy of British Colonialism.}

Rakhine Division after independence

45. In 1954, AFPFL government suppressed the Mujahids insurgency and Mujahids were compelled to
surrender in the same year. Their leader Kasim was escaped to East Pakistan and later he was captured
and imprisoned by the East Pakistan authority.

46. As Muslim problems in Rakhine were gradually cropped up the became grave the serious Rakhine
nationals formed a new political organization in the name of “Arakan National Unity Organization”
(ANUO) and stood in the election against AFPFL. In this situation in order to won in the
parliamentary elections some unfaithful AFPFL organizers, organized the Muslim people by some
illegal means. They tried to encourage the Bengali Muslim illegal entry from East Pakistan and
even supported them to become a citizen of Myanmar. In this way Muslim population became
accumulated also. As mentioned above, the Bengali Muslim population in 1941 was 124452 became
187792 in 1956. That means the total increase of those populations in 15 years we noticed was 50%.

47. Since infiltration of Bengali Muslim came from bad to worse and situation became grave and serious
ANUO members made a resolution in 1959 conference to deter the illegal immigrants effective as
immediate as possible.

48. At this time political situation in Myanmar became tense and major political league AFPFL split up
into factions as “orginal AFPFL” and clean AFPFL, 17 parliamentary members of ANUO and Muslim
parliamentary members of Buthidaung and Maungdaw sided to clean AFPFL faction in parliament and
new clean AFPFL government was declared.

49. U Nu and clean AFPFL leaders accepted the “Rohingya” as one of the indigenous races of Rakhine
and they were even allowed to broadcast their voice in BBS programmed in mix language. In 1960, the
Muslim community of Buthidaung and Maungdaw began to organize a political front called “Rohinger
political front”. Heir mandates were the right of free worship, the right of free traveling through out,
Rakhine and Myanmar, the right of free settlement in Rakhine and Myanmar and to stop the suppression
and torturous activities upon them.

50.In such moment Muslim writers like Ba Tha wrote about the existence of Rohingers with make-shift
stories. Ba Tha defined the world Rohingya as one of the indigenous races of Rakhine. They were the
descendents of shipwrecked people of Persians, Moors and Arabs who settle around about AD 788 which
was said to be the founding date of Wethali as recorded by R.B.Smart, the author of Akyab District
Gazetteer (vol.A) published in 1921. Those shipwrecked people intermixed with natives became the
origin of Rohinger was his make-shirt story. He also called the combined descendents of the followers of
Jalludin Muhammed Shah in King Mong Saw Mon period, followers of Shah Shuja in Sandathudamma
Raza period and descendents of early Muslim settlers in Buthidaung and Maungdaw as Rohingyas. He
also alleged the Mrauk-U kings who possessed Muslim titles as Muslim Rulers in Rakhine (already
explained about this matter). In fact almost all of the 48 kings of Mrauk-U were Rakhine Buddhissts as
explained above. So also, the reasons of issuing coins inscribed with Persians and Arabic language was
also explained already.

51. We have many magnificent monuments and pagodas as the massive Shitethaung, the colossal
Htukkant Thein, richly decorated central pillar of Anndaw Thein. Auspicious Leymyathna pagoda,
colored plaque Laungbwan-brauk pagoda, conical structures of victory pagodas like Ratana Manaung,
Maungala Manaung, Sekkya Manaung and Loka Manaung and countless other are the evidenced of
Mrauk-U rich heritage. If Mrauk-U was ruled by Muslim kings as alleged by Ba Tha, the Muslim writer,
we cannot hardly be witnessed those kinds of Buddhist structures today because in India, when Muslim
conquest was occurred in Buddhist and Hindu land of India, Muslim conquerors drastically took action
against them and tried to wipeout the Buddhism and Hinduism by means of destroying the Buddhist
structures as well as Hindu structures and they daringly massacred the Buddhist and Hindu monks and at
the same time Buddhist and Hindu believers were forced to convert into Mohammedan religion was the
usual practice of the Muslim conquerors. (Even today Talibans of Afghanistan destroyed almost all of the
Buddhist heritages of Buddha Images and structures in Afghanistan is the good example of their

52. If Mrauk-U was ruled by Muslim rulers, the same fate would be happened undoubtedly. But even
today the heritages of Buddhist monuments are still intact in Mrauk-U. Therefore, we can surly say that
Mrauk-U was never ruled by Muslim Rulers and it also shows that Ba Tha’s writings are merely false and
make-shift stories which only lead to arouse the political instigation’s to Muslim communities.

53. Afterwards, illegal movements of Muslim organization were appeared under the name of Rohingya
Solidarity Organization (R.S.O), Arakan Islamic Front (AR.I.F), Rohinger Patriotic Front (R.P.F),
Rohingya Liberation Organizations (R.L.C) and Ithedal Mazahadin of Arakan (I.M.A).

Rakhine Division during Revolutionary Council period

54. During the Revolutionary Council period, government authorities had made a necessary plan to take
action against the illegal immigrants. Moreover one of the important steps taken by Revolutionary
Council was that Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships became a special District of frontier areas. The
following operations were carried out by immigration department personals in RAkhine Divisions. They
Kyeekan operation
Shwekyee operation and
Sa Bai operation

Rakhine state during the period of successive peoples’ councils.
55. Under the guidance of Commander of Western Command. Rakhine State Socialist programmed Party
and Rakhine State Peoples’ Council, a major operation was carried out by a strong force of Immigration
personals in Sittwe Township and Maundaw Frontier District. The main objective was to check up in
detail of illegal immigrantss and took necessary action according to the Immigration laws. The operation
was nemed as “King Dragon operation” That operation was carried out in full swing in February 1978,
particularly in Sittwe, Buthidaung and Maungdaw Townships. Unlike the former operation. Detail
checking were carried out in ward-by-ward and village-by-village basis. Similar Muslim dwellers were
very much afraid to face the checking, many of the Muslims, in order to avoid the immigration personals
and their checking, started to flee to the neighboring country not from the said township but many guilty
conscious Muslims also from other township like, Rathedaung, Pauktaw. Mrauk-U and Minbya. The
following are the records that evade the immigration checking and fled to the Bangladesh.

S.N. --Townships ------------Escaped Muslim populations -------No. of households

1. -----Buthidaung ---------35546 --------------------------------6294
2. -----Maungdaw ----------85705 -------------------------------12522
3. -----Sittwe
။-------Pauktaw ------------156630-------------------------------2595
Total-----------------------277931------------------------------ 21411

56. In honor to express the good will between two neighboring countries Myanmar and Bangladesh,
Revolutionary Government of Myanmar accepted the repatriation programme of Bengali Muslim
refugees by means of a special operation project “Hintha” The following are the details of refugees
forwarded by Bangladesh authorities to Myanmer Government:

Type of proposed returnees------ --No. of household-------Proposed figure to be repatriated

(a) Holders of identity cards and
(b) Holder of certain kind of
documentary evidence and

(c) without documentary evidence
and dependents----------------------4617------------------18718
Total --------------------------------29059 ----------------163950

58. But in accordance with the Hintha project, the number of Households and actual repatriated
figures were 31508 and 186986. The difference we observed between the two lists mentioned above
were (+) 2449 Household and (+) 23036 persons.

59. After the completion of Hintha project. The population of Muslims we noticed are as follows.
In 1977-78 the Bengali Muslim population were 222860, where as in 1981-82 populations of Bengali
Muslims became 243867 and increased Bengali population we observed within 4 years were 21007 which
clearly shows that there were still infiltration of illegal immigrants in Maungdaw Township.

60. We have come across in Myanmar History that existing Pyu race during the Tharekhittara period
disappeared or faded out under the growing population of Bamar and other races starting from Bagan
period and onwards. In the same way, early Muslim settlers before and during Mrauk-U periods extinct
today under the Bengali Muslim who infiltrated from the adjacent country Bangladesh starting from
British colonial days up to the present day.
61. Therefore, it is totally unjustified to consider the idea of their demand as Muslim state because those
Muslims who lived in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Sittwe and in other township can only be considered as

U Shwe Zan

(1) Junior History of India by Banerji
(2) Burma gazetteer by Mr. R. B. Smart Akyab District, Vol A
(3) Burma gazetteer by S. Grantham Akyab District Vol. B-No. 1
(4) Burma gazetteer by W.B Tydd Sandoway District, Vol. A
(5) An Introduction to the political economy of Burma by J. S. Funivall
(6) Roewangyas in Arakan by Ba Tha, Article in "The Guardian", May 1960
(7) Phamphlets of (a) Rohingya Patriotic Front
(b) Rohingya Solidarity Organization
(8) The Indian Constitution- Asurvey- by S. K. Lahiri & B. N. Banergee
(9) The British Common Wealth- the Development of its Laws & Constitution Pakistan- by Alan Gled
(10) World Constitutions- full view at a glance- By S. L. Laeley
(11) The Registration of oreigners Act.
(12) History of Burma- by Lieutanant General Sir Arthur P.Phayre (1883)
(13) The golden Mrauk-U, An ancient capital of Rakhine- U Shwe Zan
(14) Some Jurifications about Wethali, a single Rakhine Dynasty existing between Fourth and Ninth
Century by U Shwe Zan
(15) The Arakani governors and their coins by Vasant Chowdhury (Calcutta)
(16) Some interesting coins of Anauk Barung and Sitagaung mong by Aung Zan-
(17) "Review of the most ancient Rakhine" 1966 by U Shwe Nyo Tin (ICS Retd.)


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